How are economics related to the formation of prejudice as explained by both the exploitation and sc
Whereas 50 years ago acts of discrimination were overt and widespread, today it is harder to assess the degree to which everyday experiences and opportunities may be shaped by ongoing forms of discrimination.
My goal is to assess the relevance of classic theories of prejudice — group threat and contact — and newer theories — symbolic politics and social identity theory — for contemporary research on attitudes towards immigrants and immigration policy. Although the causes of attitudes towards immigrants and immigration are the focus of this review, it is motivated by the consequences of these attitudes for immigrants.
Further, their study indicated that improving the qualifications of applicants benefited white applicants but not blacks, thus leading to a wider racial gap in response rates for those with higher skill.
And yet, unlike in the pre—civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement.
This represented a classic case of what economists call demand-pull inflation: too much money chasing too few goods. The role of formalization One important debate in this literature focuses on the degree to which formalized organizational procedures can mitigate discrimination by limiting individual discretion.
What is prejudice
The implications of these trends for other forms of inequality health, employment, wealth, and inheritance are discussed below. Evidence of consumer discrimination points to a range of situations in which minority customers receive poorer service or pay more than their white counterparts. Indeed, the majority of white Americans believe that a black person today has the same chance at getting a job as an equally qualified white person, and only a third believe that discrimination is an important explanation for why blacks do worse than whites in income, housing, and jobs Pager a. Accordingly, the majority of work on discrimination in credit markets focuses on the specific case of mortgages. At the same time, organizations are not merely passive recipients of the larger economic and legal context. These historical sources of discrimination may become further relevant, not only in their perpetuation of present-day inequalities, but also through their reinforcement of contemporary forms of stereotypes and discrimination. The vast majority of the work on discrimination in housing utilizes experimental audit data.
The most prominent study of the effect of race on rejection rates for mortgage loans is by Munnell et al. Likewise, controls for work experience or firm tenure may be endogenous to the process of employment discrimination if minorities are excluded from those opportunities necessary to building stable work histories see Tomaskovic-Devey et al.
In addition, audit studies are often costly and difficult to implement and can only be used for selective decision points e. A second prominent approach to investigating racial discrimination in employment has relied on in-depth, in-person interviews, which can be effective in eliciting candid discussions about sensitive hiring issues.
The resulting lower quality of education common in poor and minority school districts places these students at a disadvantage in competing for future opportunities Massey The overall volume of discrimination claims increased substantially over this period, though the composition of claims shifted away from an emphasis on racial discrimination toward a greater emphasis on gender and disability discrimination.
Indeed, the majority of white Americans believe that a black person today has the same chance at getting a job as an equally qualified white person, and only a third believe that discrimination is an important explanation for why blacks do worse than whites in income, housing, and jobs Pager a.
Factors that contribute to prejudice and discrimination
First, in , the United States terminated the Bracero Program, a seasonal guest worker program established during World War II to provide farmers with a substitute labor force after millions of American men were drafted into military service. In this format, race is asked about as only one incidental characteristic in a larger series of questions concerning this recent employee, thereby reducing the social desirability bias often triggered when the subject of race is highlighted. Although the disproportionate rise of subprime lending in minority communities is not solely the result of discrimination, some evidence suggests that in certain cases explicit racial targeting may be at work. Furthermore, perceived discrimination may lead to diminished effort or performance in education or the labor market, which itself gives rise to negative outcomes Ogbu ; Steele ; Loury , pp. In and the government covered less than 15 percent of its total expenditures through taxes. The difficulties of collecting taxes and floating new bond issues had become so severe that in the final year of the war the total revenues collected by the Confederate Government actually declined. For example, Squires finds that credit history irregularities on policy applications were often selectively overlooked in the case of white applicants. Following Reskin , in this discussion we consider influences that operate at the individual, organizational, and societal level. Patterns of perceived discrimination are important findings in their own right, as research shows that those who perceive high levels of discrimination are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and other negative health outcomes Kessler et al. So I begin the review by describing trends in attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. The degree to which formalization can reduce or eliminate discrimination, thus, remains open to debate, with effects depending on the specific context of implementation. Even so, the direct cost of the war as calculated by Goldin and Lewis was 1. While the economic situation of laborers deteriorated during the war, one must remember that wage earners in were still a relatively small share of the total labor force.
based on 104 review