Moreover, these revisionist scholars argue, for many places the West has not been the land of freedom and opportunity that both Turnerian history and popular mythology would have us believe.
They emphasized the values of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, and the resolution of social, economic, and political issues.
Turner taught at the University of Wisconsin untilwhen he accepted an appointment to a distinguished chair of history at Harvard University. Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power.
Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two. He elaborates by stating, Behind institutions, behind constitutional forms and modifications, lie the vital forces that call these organs into life and shape them to meet changing conditions.
Poor health forced his early retirement from Harvard in Turner was born in Portage, Wisconsin, in But in a sense, the very acrimony of these debates takes us full circle back to Turner and his legacy, for debates about the significance of Western history are hardly ever confined to the past.
Adams, his mentor at Johns Hopkinshad argued that all significant American institutions derived from German and English antecedents. In the pavilions and halls of the Exposition, the electric light bulb, the moveable sidewalk, the Ferris wheel, diet carbonated soda, and Cream of Wheat were a few of the many exciting things unveiled.
Trails: Toward a New Western History.